What are the different types of research studies? Comparative Effectiveness Research CER Comparative effectiveness research CER is a direct comparison of existing options available for treating a particular medical condition.
Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound — they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect. There are three main types of descriptive methods: This article will briefly describe each of these methods, their advantages, and their drawbacks.
This may help you better understand research findings, whether reported in the mainstream media, or when reading a research study on your own.
Observational Method With the observational method sometimes referred to as field observation animal and human behavior is closely observed. There are two main categories of the observational method — naturalistic observation and laboratory observation. The biggest advantage of the naturalistic method of research is that researchers view participants in their natural environments.
This leads to greater ecological validity than laboratory observation, proponents say. Ecological validity refers to the extent to which research can be used in real-life situations. Proponents of laboratory observation often suggest that due to more control in the laboratory, the results found when using laboratory observation are more meaningful than those obtained with naturalistic observation.
Laboratory observations are usually less time-consuming and cheaper than naturalistic observations. Of course, both naturalistic and laboratory observation are important in regard to the advancement of scientific knowledge.
Case Study Method Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of indviduals.
Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case studies should not be used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate predictions.
There are two serious problems with case studies — expectancy effects and atypical individuals.
Describing atypical individuals may lead to poor generalizations and detract from external validity. Survey Method In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given.
In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly. Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type: Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner.
Closed-ended questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can give. It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or the data collected.Research Study Types There are many different types of research studies, and each has distinct strengths and weaknesses.
In general, randomized trials and cohort studies provide the best information when looking at the link between a certain factor (like diet) and a health outcome (like heart disease). The descriptions below provide a basic overview of the different types of research studies that are used to collect evidence about breast cancer and its treatment.
Laboratory studies Research involving a controlled environment, such as cell cultures in a test tube or in a petri dish, are called in vitro studies.
Case studies are a popular research method in business area. Case studies aim to analyze specific issues within the boundaries of a specific environment, situation or organization. According to its design, case studies in business research can be divided into . Different types of research studies—strengths and weaknesses Each type of research study has its own strengths and weaknesses.
These are important to be aware of when reviewing scientific evidence. In order to find the best possible evidence, it helps to understand the basic designs of research studies. The following basic definitions and examples of clinical research designs follow the “levels of evidence.” Case Series and Case Reports.
Types of Case Studies [Page 9] The case study approach presented is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary problem within its real-life context.